Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Flag Still Flies

Rebel flag still flying in black SC neighborhood
By BRUCE SMITH - Associated Press | AP
Sept. 8, 2011

SUMMERVILLE, S.C. (AP) — A year ago, dozens marched to protest the Confederate flag a white woman flew from her porch in a historically black Southern neighborhood. After someone threw a rock at her porch, she put up a wooden lattice. That was just the start of the building.

Earlier this year, two solid 8-foot high wooden fences were built on either side of Annie Chambers Caddell's modest brick house to shield the Southern banner from view.

Late this summer, Caddell raised a flagpole higher than the fences to display the flag. Then a similar pole with an American flag was placed across the fence in the yard of neighbor Patterson James, who is black.

One hundred and fifty years after the Civil War began about 20 miles away in Charleston Harbor, fights continue over the meaning of the Confederate flag. Some see it as a symbol of slavery and racism; others like Caddell say it's part of their Southern heritage.

"I'm here to stay. I didn't back down and because I didn't cower the neighbors say I'm the lady who loves her flag and loves her heritage," said the 51-year old Caddell who moved into the historically black Brownsville neighborhood in the summer of 2010. Her ancestors fought for the Confederacy.

Last October, about 70 people marched in the street and sang civil rights songs to protest the flag, while about 30 others stood in Caddell's yard waving the Confederate flag.

Opponents of the flag earlier gathered 200 names on a protest petition and took their case to a town council meeting where Caddell tearfully testified that she's not a racist. Local officials have said she has the right to fly the flag, while her neighbors have the right to protest. And build fences.

"Things seemed to quiet down and then the fences started," Caddell said. "I didn't know anything about it until they were putting down the postholes and threw it together in less than a day."

Aaron Brown, the town councilman whose district includes Brownsville, said neighbors raised money for the fences.

"The community met and talked about the situation," he said. "Somebody suggested that what we should do is just go ahead and put the fences up and that way somebody would have to stand directly in front of the house to see the flag and that would mediate the flag's influence."

Caddell isn't bothered by the fences and said they even seem to draw more attention to her house.

"People driving by here because of the privacy fences, they tend to slow down," she said. "If the objective was to block my house from view, they didn't succeed very well."

The Confederate flag remains a sensitive issue in South Carolina.

The battle emblem of the Confederacy had flown on the dome of the Statehouse in Columbia since the Civil War centennial in the 1960s when state lawmakers voted in 2000 to move it to a Confederate monument in front of the building. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People has waged a tourism boycott on the state since then as it seeks to have the flag removed from the Statehouse grounds.

Caddell, Brown and James all say things have been quiet in Brownsville in recent months.

"She's got a right to do what she wants to do," James said. "That's all I really have to say. She can do what she wants to do in her yard, but I don't share her beliefs."


Sunday, September 25, 2011

SCV Donates Manassas Battlefield

Sons of Confederate Veterans and the Formation of Manassas National Battlefield Park
by Brag Bowling on Wednesday, August 3, 2011

The recent activities surrounding the Sesquicentennial of the 1st Battle of Manassas harkens back to the formation of the national park in Manassas and the role of the SCV in making it a reality. In a time when the old Confederate veterans were still alive, members of the SCV realized that the Confederate South had yet to memorialize a single battlefield. Battlefield Parks were the domain of state park systems or the Department of the Interior through the agency of the National Park Service. The SCV viewed the important historical land as “particularly neglected” since the battle.

The initial plan began with the obtaining of an option in 1920 by the United Daughters of the Confederacy to purchase the Henry Farm, a 130 acre tract of land where the most famous aspects of the battle had occurred. One year later, the Manassas Battlefield Confederate Park, Inc., an SCV auxiliary, was created to raise the necessary $25,000 option purchase price.

It was the purpose of the SCV to have the park stand as a Southern battlefield memorial to the Confederate soldier. At the time, other historical projects seemed to often omit Southern soldiers, valor and their achievements. For example, much ado was made when the amphitheatre in Arlington National Cemetery omitted the Southern soldier. Education and history would be its hallmark but in no way would the Northern soldier be ignored. Monuments and memorials would be encouraged from both warring sides. Even so, the corporation had a great deal of infighting with one faction forming which wanted the word “confederate” removed from the corporate title (much like the problems today’s Museum of the Confederacy faces). There was also internal litigation over control of the property.

The SCV soon found (as did many other organizations) that raising the money to execute the deal would be difficult. Not only was the South still prostrate financially from the War Between the States, the entire nation was mired in the Great Depression. Today, the SCV has over 30,000 members. In 1939, the organization had 1753 members with a treasury of only a few thousand dollars. Also, projects such as Stone Mountain in Georgia were competing for limited Southern resources. Despite financial issues, the SCV was meeting its financial obligations and an accounting of the organization’s finances in 1938 showed they were fiscally sound (but not wealthy). Still, it seemed a nearly impossible task to reach the original goals of the Park. In 1933, conversations began with the National Park Service. The possible transfer caused a great deal of apprehension in the South who was leery of federal ownership and federal park interpretation and management.

To make a long story short, the $25,000 was raised and in 1939, an agreement was worked out with the federal government for the SCV to donate the Henry Farm to the National Park Service for the purpose of establishing a national military park.

Herein lies the rub. Despite the severe financial problems the SCV had at the time, the organization seemed equally concerned with the way the tract would be interpreted should the National Park Service obtain the Henry Farm. In the conveyance deed, the SCV stipulated that “strictest accuracy and fairness” be demanded in the erection of monuments and markers and opposed anything which would in anyway detract from the glory due to the Confederate soldier. Care was to be taken to preserve the battlefield without prejudice to either the North or South. These clauses in the deed became covenants running with the land, enforceable by a court of law.

At the time, many were concerned that The Grand Bargain struck between Union and Confederate veterans was falling apart. This unwritten truce allowed the country to heal from the war and reconcile without finger pointing or recrimination. Today, The Grand Bargain is a relic of the past. It is open season on the interpretation of Confederate history and the causes of the war. In many ways, the America of 2011 still is divided on a sectional basis. The old veterans seemed to be able to co-exist while today, the government, academia and the media are re-opening many old wounds, often demonizing the Confederate soldier and the cause for which he fought.

On February 16, 1940, the Department of the Interior accepted the deed. The Park Service remained leery of the restrictive covenants and internal memorandums and letters at the time urged caution in their interpretation lest they bring a court challenge. For $1, the Sons of Confederate Veterans generously donated the critical piece of the Manassas Battlefield, the Henry Farm and Henry House Hill where the battle was decided and where the immortal Jackson earned the most famous sobriquet in military history – “Stonewall”. Manassas was supremely important to the people of the South. Two decisive Confederate victories occurred on the plains of Manassas.

Today, the Manassas Battlefield is a wonderful attraction luring thousands of tourists every year. A bronze plaque denoting the SCV gift is exhibited prominently in the Manassas Visitors Center. The SCV surrendered much in their donation. The potential revenue of running their own Manassas Park (potentially millions) was considered at the time. Internal SCV memos were already noticing the visitation at other national parks. The Henry Farm donation would be similar to donating the Burnside Bridge at Sharpsburg, Marye’s Heights in Fredericksburg, or Little Round Top at Gettysburg. The generous donation was a true act of both patriotism and national reconciliation on the part of the South and the Sons of Confederate Veterans.

Published in The Richmond Times Dispatch

Thursday, September 22, 2011

New Legal Action in Reidsville, North Carolina

Activists say statue must be replaced

Thursday, September 22, 2011 (Updated 3:02 am)
By J. Brian Ewing

REIDSVILLE — A new group is threatening legal action against the city of Reidsville if a controversial Confederate monument isn’t returned to the city’s center.

A group calling itself the Historical Political Action Committee delivered a letter to Reidsville on Tuesday alleging that the state owns the monument and the land it sat on.

The century-old monument , which sat on a massive marble base in the traffic circle of Morehead and Scales streets, was damaged in May when it was hit by a van.

The city determined that the state association of the United Daughters of the Confederacy owns the statue. That group decided not to erect a replacement in the city center. However, the local chapter disagrees with its state leadership, according to members.

The statue has been a point of controversy in the city, acting as a reminder of slavery for some and a symbol of Southern pride for others. The state UDC president cited that controversy when announcing the decision not to replace the monument.

There has been discussion of erecting a replica in a city-owned cemetery that has a section for Confederate soldiers.

Citing articles in the local newspaper from 1910, when the monument was installed, the committee argues that the UDC gave the statue to the city but the state has owned it for decades because the traffic circle is part of the state road system.

The group gave the city 30 days to respond. Rodney Hord , committee president , said the city took possession of both the statue and its base after the wreck.

Hord said the letter was also delivered to the N.C. Department of Transportation and the N.C. Historical Commission. He took issue with the state UDC’s claim that the statue is damaged beyond repair.

He said the group wants to see a historic and misunderstood monument returned to its rightful place.

“It’s not a racist thing,” Hord said. “It’s to the dead soldiers of the Confederacy.”

City Manager Michael Pearce said the city attorney is reviewing the letter.

“They raised some new points that hadn’t been considered before,” Pearce said. “My initial reaction is to disagree with the public right-of-way versus land ownership claim.”

The group plans to hold a news conference downtown at 10 a.m. today .


Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Amendment Deadline Given


The Deadline for those wishing to submit proposed amendments to the SCV Constitution or the Standing Orders to be considered at the Reunion in Murfreesboro, TN in July 2012 is February 8, 2012.

Amendments should be submitted to Executive Director Ben Sewell at General Headquarters. They can be sent either by email to exedir@scv.org or by US Mail to: Sons of Confederate Veterans, P.O. Box 59, Columbia, TN 38402. Email submissions must be sent on or before February 8, 2012 and those send by US Mail must be postmarked by February 8, 2012.

Those submitting proposed amendments should include their name, camp number and contact information - phone number and email address is available. Please also send a brief statement as to the purpose of the amendment and the reasons it should be adopted. This will better help camps understand the purpose and advantages of the proposed amendment.

Executive Director Sewell will acknowledge receipt of the amendments. However, it is the responsibility of the sender to confirm with Director Sewell that any amendment submitted was received at General Heatquarters.

Please contact me or Executive Director Sewell if you have any questions.

Chuck Rand
Adjutant In Chief

Monday, September 19, 2011

Confederate History Remembered in Tampa

Tampa's rebel roots explored
The Tampa Tribune
September 18, 2011


There were the Finley brothers, Thomas and John, ages 18 and 16, respectively. Thomas died at the Civil War prison in Rock Island, Ill. John died, too. No one knows how or where.

And there was Hiram Archibald McLeod, who helped Judah B. Benjamin, then secretary of state for the Confederacy, escape after Richmond fell. McLeod had been wounded twice by then and had only one leg.

The Finleys and McLeod were among 86 Tampa Bay area men remembered Saturday afternoon at the William F. Poe Plaza in downtown Tampa as part of a historical re-enactment organized by the Tampa Bay Sesquicentennial Commission.

Re-enactors brought to life a ceremony that took place 150 years ago, at which area women wearing white dresses and blue sashes presented a flag to the 86 men before they went off to fight for the South.

The 86 later were joined by another 14 men, reaching the required 100 for a company, and were organized in Jacksonville into Company K of the Fourth Florida regiment. They were known as the Sunny South Guards.

In Poe Plaza, as a small brass band played, nearly a dozen young women stood in a line, each representing a southern state. Then the men marched in, with cap-and-ball rifles or muskets in their hands and cartridge box slings draped over their shoulders.

There were 24 stand-ins, not 86. "That was as many bodies as we could snatch," said John Mitchell, a drug counselor who served as one of the recruits.

As part of the re-enactment, the soldiers heard from their commander, Capt. John T. Lesley, who was played by Bryan Gilmore, a Mosaic phosphate plant employee. Robert E. Lee was on hand, too, played by Tom Jessee — even though Lee wasn't at the long-ago flag presentation.

"We of the South vow anew that we stand united in a glorious cause," Gilmore told the soldiers, "and we, its defenders, beseech of a divine Providence, guidance for a triumphal victory under this beautiful banner the hands of Tampa's finest have bestowed on us this day."

The actual flag presentation in 1861 occurred some distance from what's now Poe Plaza. But organizers couldn't arrange a re-enactment at that location because it is now a busy intersection in the shadow of the Selmon Crosstown Expressway.


Sunday, September 18, 2011

Genealogy: Having Blood in the Game

Genealogy: Having Blood In the Game
This isn’t your father’s genealogy: The Internet and information technology make genealogy accessible and feasible for a much wider audience

By Steve Scroggins … featuring Hu Daughtry

As part of our Sesquicentennial series, we wanted to put together an informative piece on genealogy to inspire others to start their own family roots search. This first effort in the genealogy series includes some tips and advice on how to get started to document your own family tree.

As a member of the Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV), I have some experience with my own genealogical search. Though always happy to share and advise, I knew I could do better service to readers by seeking out the insights of a more active and experienced genealogist.

As you’ll read below, Hu Daughtry reveals it’s not rocket science and it’s much easier to get started today that it was for our parents’ generation.

I thought that I had been fortunate to find five direct ancestors (four great-great grandfathers and one great-great-great) who were Confederate veterans (and many more gg-uncles).

As it happens, the counties where my parents’ families settled in recent generations were in counties (AL and GA) that happened to have active genealogical groups and online bulletin boards. I found a lot of the information online, with help from friendly searchers, without having to travel outside my home.

It all started with a photograph. My maternal grandmother’s sister gave me a photo from 1915 of the Theus family of Taylor County Georgia. That photo included my grandmother as a young toddler on her mother’s lap. My grandmother’s grandfather, Thomas B. Theus, is the gray-bearded elder seated in the center of the photo.

Armed with that knowledge, a trip to the local library found Joseph Crute’s Units of the Confederate States Army (for Georgia). I did a lookup of the units that originated in Taylor County and there in the muster roll for Company C of the 59th Georgia Infantry (the Arthur Greys of Taylor County) was a listing of seven Theus men. Were they brothers or cousins or what? I soon learned, with help from online resources, that they were all brothers. Of the seven Theus brothers who went to war, only three survived.

Do You Know Who Your Ancestors Are?

As southern families go, they were luckier than many. I read of five brothers in a neighboring county, all of whom died in the war. Given the local nature of company units for that war, it was very common to have multiple brothers and relatives in the same unit.

The author of the fictional WWII story of Saving Private Ryan was inspired by a monument to four New Hampshire brothers who died in the War to Prevent Southern Independence.

The second man from the left seated on the first row is my great-grandfather, Tom Barfield. His father, Jesse Bud Barfield, was also a Confederate veteran. Tom’s grandfather, Jesse M. Barfield, was a veteran of the Mexican war. Seated to Tom’s right is my great-grandmother Dora Theus Barfield with my grandmother in her lap.

They had been married ten years at the time of this photo and their fifth child would be born four years later. In 2005, the centennial anniversary of their marriage, I wrote an essay exploring some of the historical events at that time in history (1904-05).

In my experience, as well as Hu Daughtry and many others, finding that one has blood relatives who were directly involved in an historical event, such as a war, just naturally fires one’s interest in that time period and in history in general. If only more people had such interest and invested time seeking the truths of history.

“If you don’t know history, you don’t know anything. You’re a leaf that doesn’t know it’s part of a tree.” —-Michael Crichton

“A nation which does not remember what it was yesterday does not know where it is today…” –Gen. Robert E. Lee

As economist Ludwig von Mises wrote, “Historical knowledge is indispensable for those who want to build a better world.”

I think most readers would agree that a greater knowledge and understanding of history is essential to understanding what is happening in the world today.

Lacking interest in and awareness of History allows demagogues and manipulators traction and persuasion ability they shouldn’t have. It’s an acknowledged fact that the most recent generations see the subject of history as “boring” and not truly relevant in their lives.

Contrast them with Americans of generations before, most of whom considered history a favorite school subject. The question is, why the change? I attempted to answer that question in a March 2010 essay entitled Poisoning History: Guilt-tripping to Utopia.

“Seen in the light of anti-American self-loathing as promulgated and promoted by revisionists (e.g., James Loewen, Howard Zinn, et al), is it any wonder that several generations of Americans hold a more negative view of their country and its founders? Is it any wonder that many of these younger Americans view history as less relevant to their modern lives? Is it any wonder that many Americans are ignorant of the U.S. Constitution and the Founding Principles? If that widespread ignorance of our Constitution and Founding Principles doesn’t terrify you, it should.” —Steve Scroggins, from Poisoning History: Guilt-tripping to Utopia.

Clearly, genealogy or historical knowledge is not an end-all panacea. But ignorance of history, as the old saw goes, dooms us to repeat the mistakes that echo through human history.

Looking at a narrow band of time, American history for example, it becomes clear that one cannot fully understand a certain period without understanding the events in the decades immediately preceding that period… and on and on it goes until the beginning. History, like genealogy, is a lifelong pursuit. Greater understanding requires ongoing effort.

If you make the effort to get a good start, I’m willing to bet that you’ll be hooked. You might suspend your search during busy periods, but you’ll always be looking to fill in gaps and break through “brick walls” that are found in most family trees.

There are many online genealogy services (Daughtry mentions some below) and many versions of software to help with the search and the cataloging, organizing and sharing of data.

There are thousands of local genealogy websites with bulletin boards and query/discussion boards for certain counties. Odds are that some distant relative has already captured some of the information you’ll be looking for.

Whether you are looking for ancestors in the south, the north or elsewhere in America, the principles of Hu Daughtry’s advice below remains the same. For professionals who specialize in various countries of origin, you can find a directory of them at http://genealogypro.com/ As noted above, there’s a lot of satisfaction in doing the search yourself.

You Never Know Who You Might Find

Upcoming in the genealogy series, we’ll explore utilization of advanced technologies such as DNA testing for genealogical purposes. Now, to our guest contributor.

I met Hu Daughtry a few years ago when he was a program speaker at my local Camp meeting of the Sons of Confederate Veterans.

He was an informative and entertaining speaker and what I remember most was his collection of family photographs. He had a phenomenal number of old photographs of many of his ancestors and knew all their names and stories.

Daughtry is the author of the book, CONFEDERATE TALES OF CANDLER & CONNECTED COUNTIES. He resides in rural Candler County, Georgia and he is the commander of The Dixie Guards, Camp # 1942, Sons of Confederate Veterans based in Metter, Georgia.

He also serves as one of three recruiting and genealogy officers for the Georgia division of SCV who assists potential or interested members to locate a Confederate ancestor. Whether your ancestors were Confederate, or otherwise, the principles of starting the search remain the same (in the U.S.).


by Hu Daughtry
My maternal grandfather is largely responsible for my seemly-endless passion for history and genealogy; quite succinctly, he possessed the uncanny ability (it was definitely a gift from God) to bring the dead back to life—with the mere use of spoken words. For the privilege of sharing the first 26 years of my life with him, I shall always be more than grateful.

Gen. N.B. Forrest
Although he never actually knew either of them, both of his grandfathers fought valiantly in That Unsuccessful Struggle For Southern Independence; one nearly lost a leg at a place called Second Manassas, while the other rode with Bedford Forrest at Chickamauga and actually made it to Joe Johnston’s late April surrender near Greensboro.

Hence, my interest in That Uncivil War of The 1860’s was quite unavoidable and was destined to overtake and devour me – sooner or later……

As I became older, I began to wonder and ponder more and more about my ancestors; who exactly were those dead relatives of mine who were directly responsible for my very existence on God’s Earth?

Before too much time had lapsed, it became blatantly obvious that the discipline of genealogy was much more addictive than any drug which I ever sold during my more than twenty years as a practicing pharmacist; that much, I am sure of…….

Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, III
Approximately four years ago, I researched and wrote a book entitled: CONFEDERATE TALES OF CANDLER & CONNECTED COUNTIES; while working on this non-fictional literary endeavor, I began to learn the basic principles and skills of genealogical / historical research.

Looking back, it is readily apparent that this marked the beginning of my avocation as “a genealogist.”

Just months following the publication of my book, I began receiving calls and e-mails from individuals seeking to hire me to perform genealogy work; at the time of this writing, I spend between 25 and 30 hours per week “conducting genealogical and historical research for private clients.”

A couple of years ago, in a magnanimous effort to increase the membership of The Georgia Division of The Sons of Confederate Veterans, Georgia Division Adjutant Timothy Pilgrim created the appointed position(s) of “Genealogy / Recruiting Officers.” In short, I was appointed to fill one of these three positions and since that time, have identified Confederate Ancestors for more than 300 potential members.

Old Confederate Veterans
Locating a “Confederate Ancestor” for a potential SCV (Sons of Confederate Veterans) compatriot is actually a simplistic process; I usually obtain some basic familial data from the interested party, then I begin the quest to “unearth at least one of his Rebel Relatives.”

As alluded to earlier, the first duty of a genealogy / recruiting officer is to locate a Confederate Ancestor for a male (twelve years of age or older) who wishes to enlist in this noble organization; once a suitable ancestor has been found, the next step is to place the future compatriot in the camp of his choosing.

In most cases, as common sense would certainly dictate, this is usually a camp which lies in close proximity to the potential member’s residence.

To Get Started...
Quite laconically, whenever I am contacted by an individual who is interested in joining a camp in The Georgia Division of The Sons of Confederate Veterans, I make a conscious and obvious effort to perform the majority of the work – myself.

Unfortunately, the plethora of paperwork often associated with locating one’s Confederate Relative(s) is often perceived as overwhelming and even intimidating to a novice / neophyte genealogist; therefore, many potential members simply shy away from this largely-unfamiliar process and fail to enlist in The Sons of Confederate Veterans.

One of the primary objectives of a genealogy / recruiting officer is to prevent this aforementioned worst-case scenario from occurring.

Generally speaking, when contacted by an interested party, I simply ask this individual to supply me with the names of at least two direct ancestors (mother, father, grandfather, grandmother, etc.) who were alive in 1930; additionally, it is imperative that I learn the exact familial relationship of this ancestor to the interested party.

Furthermore, it is also advantageous to know the approximate year of birth of the relative, and the county / state in which he / she resided in 1930. The rationale behind the annum ‘1930’ is such that this represents the most current Federal Census Enumeration which is currently available to the public.

Sgt. Alvin York - MoH - WWI - Confederate Descendant
Once I have identified an ancestor or two whose names appear on The 1930 Census Report, I am able “to take it from there.” Summarily, I merely “back track to 1860 and begin the hunt for a potential Confederate Soldier.” Ancestry.com is a great on-line source for accessing Federal Census Records.

In The South, especially in Georgia, white males from 16 to 60 were called upon to defend their homeland against The Forces of Northern Aggression; hence, the adage “from the cradle to the grave” was certainly no exaggeration.

In a genealogical sense, the significance of this “well-documented assertion” simply means that if an individual possesses a white male antecedent who was between the ages of 16 and 60 (from 1861 — 1865), there is a distinct possibility that this particular ancestor served in The Conventional Confederate Army, A State Unit, or perhaps even a Home Guard Outfit. Fold3.com (formerly Footnote.com) contains the majority of The Compiled Military Service Records for most Confederate Units.

In addition to The Confederate Compiled Military Service Records, there are also Confederate Pension Applications which can be found on-line; for example, those for Georgia and Alabama are readily accessible on Ancestry.Com.

As mentioned previously, I am also available to do genealogy work for the general public;” during the course of my practice, I have assisted several clients in their successful quests to join The Daughters of The American Revolution, The Sons of The American Revolution, as well as The United Daughters of The Confederacy.

On the other hand, there are those who have joined The Sons of Confederate Veterans who wish to learn more of their family history; for example, I prepared a report for one client which contained definitive proof that he actually possessed 36 Civil War Ancestors (a couple wore Union Blue). In addition to “Confederate-Oriented

Who's Lurking in Your Family Tree?
Research,” I have also done work for clients who descended not only from Union Soldiers, but from former slaves who served in The United States Colored Troops.

In recapitulation, it seems that more and more members of our 21st Century Society are rapidly developing an interest in their genealogical roots.

Fortunately, with the advent of modern technology, “tracing one’s family history” is much simpler today than it was in the days of our fathers and grandfathers; I, for one, feel that those of us who wish to learn as much as humanly possible of the lives and times of our progenitors, should make a tenacious effort to do so.

I have seen, on more than one occasion, individuals who find the subject of history to be “incredibly boring, literally transformed into “genealogy junkies” — practically overnight.

For clandestine, inexplicable reasons, the pages of history seem to suddenly “come alive” – when one learns that several members of his blood kindred were actively involved in a famous (or perhaps infamous) event such as a specific battle, conflict, war, etc.

Finally, in closing, I should like to challenge each and every reader of this article to make an effort to learn as much as possible about those who lurk silently within the hidden confines of the nooks and crannies of your family tree; the information that you find just might be “more than priceless……”

Hu Daughtry can be contacted by email at: sidada11@yahoo.com or by snailmail at — Hu Daughtry; Post Office Box 406; Metter,Georgia 30439

Note: As mentioned above, Hu Daughtry in one of three genealogy officers for the Georgia Division of SCV. The SCV.org website has a directory of genealogy officers for many other Divisions of the SCV as well as other genealogy resources: http://www.scv.org/genealogy.php


Saturday, September 17, 2011

Kansas "Jawhawk" Mascot Condemed as Terrorist Name

Osceola Resolution

City of Osceola, Missouri Condemns “Jayhawk” Mascott

Recently the City of Osceola, Missouri passed a resolution condemning KU’s “Jayhawk” mascot. The resolution reads as follows:


On this date, the City of Osceola, after hearing all of the evidence, and for good cause shown, finds the following:


That on September 21 – 23, 1861, a group of domestic terrorist, referred to as “the jayhawkers,” sacked the city of Osceola, St. Clair County, Missouri and burned all but four or five of the city’s buildings to the ground.


That on or around that date, twelve citizens of Osceola, St. Clair County, Missouri, were executed by said terrorist group.


That the above-mentioned occurrence eventually led to William Clark Quantrill’s raid on Lawrence, kansas, as Missourians had no choice but to defend themselves from the murderous attacks perpetrated by the jayhawkers, led by Jim Lane and James Montgomery.


That when the University of kansas fielded its football team in 1890, it referred to the team as “the jayhawkers,” an obvious celebration of the above-named terrorist group. This term was eventually shortened to “jayhawks,” a name which has since been officially adopted by the University of kansas as the mascot for all its sports teams.


That the present-day “jayhawks,” kU alumni, citizens of the state of kansas, et al,, have willfully, wantonly and recklessly disregarded the above-mentioned occurrence when discussing the roots of the “Border War” which currently existed between the University of Missouri Tigers and the University of kansas jayhawks.


Whereas, the Civil War Trust, Summer 2011 issue of “Hallowed Ground” published by the National Park Services does hereby acknowledge that partisan forces led by Jim Lane raided and sacked the town of Osceola, Missouri, executing nine men after a hastily arranged court martial.

IT IS THEREFORE RESOLVED that the City of Osceola, Missouri, by and through its citizens, officially CONDEMNS the celebration of this murderous gang of terrorists by an institution of “higher education,” in such a brazen and malicious manner.

IT IS FURTHER RESOLVED that citizens of the City of Osceola, Missouri requests the University of Missouri to educate the above-named Defendants on the FULL historical origins of the “Border War.”

IT IS FURTHER RESOLVED that no citizen of the City of Osceola or the alumni of the University of Missouri shall ever capitalize the “k” in “kansas” or “kU,” as neither is a proper name or a proper place.


Larry Hutsler, Mayor

Wednesday, September 14, 2011

School Attacks Student's Heritage

LAWRENCE COUNTY, AL (WAFF) - Three students are suspended two days each for waving a rebel flag during Lawrence County High School's homecoming parade.

James Sharpley, standing in front of what once was his segregated high school in Moulton, a segregated school, said he and others in the African-American community are deeply offended.

"That's fine if they want to have a confederate flag, but when you started putting it in parades, that's a different thing," said Sharpley.

Superintendent Heath Grimes said the students hid the flags and pulled them out once their truck left school property.

"I wish somebody had stopped them to begin with," Grimes said. "These flags would have never been approved to show during the parade," he added.

"Don't hate me because I'm black. I won't hate you because you're white. We ought to be able to get along and that is digging in old wounds, making people upset," said African-American Moulton resident Barry Brackins.

The superintendent said he wants all students to know why the confederate flag represents pain for African-Americans.

"I hope that in the future we can help them understand what this means and use this as a learning experience, that this is not just a flag. That it is hurtful to some of those around them," Grimes said.

He added that, from now on, Lawrence County Schools will keep staff along school parade routes to prevent something like this incident from happening again


Louisiana Tigers

The Terrifying Tigers

Lt. Col. Charles de Choiseul was not a happy man. It was September 1861, and de Choiseul, a well-educated French Creole, had been ordered to take temporary command of Maj. Chatham Roberdeau Wheat’s First Special Battalion of Louisiana Infantry while Wheat recovered from a serious wound suffered at the First Battle of Bull Run. It was no routine assignment: a Virginia officer had been given the position previously, but he was unable to control the rowdy men and quit after only a few days. Now it was de Choiseul’s turn to try to rein in what was known as the Tiger Battalion. He wrote a friend, “I am a victim of circumstances, not of my own will. … Whether the Tigers will devour me, or whether I will succeed in taming them, remains to be seen.”

Few people wanted to associate with the battalion raised by Rob Wheat, a six-foot-four, 275-lb. giant. Wheat had served as an officer in the Mexican War and fought on American filibustering expeditions to Cuba, Mexico and Nicaragua. A man with a taste for adventure, he was serving with Giuseppe Garibaldi’s Red Shirts in Italy when the Civil War began. He immediately came home to New Orleans and organized a battalion of five companies.

Wheat’s men were a potpourri of high-society lawyers, merchants and planters’ sons, combined with low-life pickpockets, gamblers and thieves. One company, the Tiger Rifles, adopted the Zouave uniform and was said to have been partly recruited from New Orleans’ jails. Like other units raised in New Orleans, many of Wheat’s men were of foreign birth. While the soldiers from north Louisiana were English-speaking, Scots-Irish Protestants like other Confederates, those from New Orleans and south Louisiana were unique in the army. Louisiana was the only Southern state that was predominantly Catholic, and it had the highest number of newly arrived immigrants. In fact, when the Civil War began nearly one half of New Orleans residents had been born outside the United States.

Out of this multicultural population, men from at least 24 different nationalities volunteered for military service; many of them ended up serving under Wheat. It was a rough bunch. Many of the city’s foreign-born worked at the most menial of jobs on docks, wharves, levees and steamboats, where drinking, fighting and thievery were seen as necessary for survival. They naturally brought those same values to the army.
Before de Choiseul took command of Wheat’s Battalion, several Louisiana units had already become well known for such misconduct. Coppens’s Zouaves had hijacked their troop train on the way to Virginia and looted Montgomery, Ala., while drunken members of the 14th Louisiana rioted and attacked their officers on the way to the Old Dominion. In the latter incident, the regiment’s officers had to kill several of the men to regain control. Nonetheless, Wheat’s Battalion became the most notorious of all, creating so much mayhem in Virginia that Gen. Richard Taylor claimed “every commander desired to be rid of it.” Still, the unit performed bravely at Bull Run, and it was soon nicknamed the Tiger Battalion.

Civilians and soldiers alike came to fear the Tiger Battalion. One Alabaman described the men as “adventurers, wharf-rats, cutthroats, and bad characters generally.” Another soldier admitted, “I was actually afraid of them, afraid I would meet them somewhere and that they would do me like they did Tom Lane of my company; knock me down and stamp me half to death.”

Within six months after arriving in Virginia, members of Wheat’s Battalion engaged in a drunken street brawl in Lynchburg, fought the First Kentucky with rocks in camp, and lit into the 21st Georgia when the Georgians ran off with the Louisianians’ whiskey bottle. In the latter incident, 10 members of the Tiger Rifles took on an entire company of Georgians and were badly beaten. The Georgians’ captain apologized for his men’s theft but warned the bloodied Tigers they could have been killed if had not intervened. While walking away, one defiant Tiger called over his shoulder, “We are much obliged, sor, but Wheat’s Battalion kin clean up the whole damn Twenty-first Georgia any time.”

The Tigers were just a small subset of the 12,000 Louisiana soldiers in Virginia in 1861. Most were decent, God-fearing men who served their state honorably. But there were enough criminals and drunkards mixed in to give the entire state’s contribution a bad reputation. The good were lumped together with the bad, and because Wheat’s Tiger Battalion was the most infamous, all became known as the Louisiana Tigers.
Library of CongressThe Louisiana Tigers, left, charge a Union battery at the Battle of Gettysburg.

Trouble began anew not long after Colonel de Choiseul assumed command of Wheat’s Battalion, when, as he said, “the whole set got royally drunk.” That day an inebriated soldier twice snapped his loaded musket at the colonel’s orderly outside his tent, but the gun failed to discharge and the man was subdued. Later in the day unknown Tigers succeeded in “knocking down & badly beating & robbing … a washerwoman of the battalion in a thicket not a hundred yards from the guard house.” That night a free-for-all at the guard tent woke the colonel. With pistol in hand, he found the guards battling seven or eight Tigers who were trying to free some of their comrades. De Choiseul slugged one man who charged at him and finally restored order “with seven or eight beauties bucked & gagged in the guard tent.”

The next day the tension between the colonel and his men exploded. When two Tigers casually walked out of camp, de Choiseul mounted his horse and rode over to investigate. The men told him that the orderly sergeant had given them permission, but the colonel was suspicious of their story. He rode over to question the sergeant but ended up arresting him when the sergeant gave “an impudent answer” to his questions. De Choiseul ordered the man to his quarters and he skulked off uttering oaths under his breath. No sooner had he left than another Tiger strolled over and began defending the sergeant. Out of patience, de Choiseul ordered him to the guard house, but the man refused to go. Furious, de Choiseul grabbed him by his collar and threw him to the ground. The soldier picked himself up but still refused to obey the order, so the colonel knocked him down a second time.

By then a threatening crowd of Tigers was forming around de Choiseul. The colonel fingered his pistol and warned he would shoot the first man who “raised a finger.” Immediately, as de Choiseul recalled, a “big double fisted ugly looking fellow came at me & said ‘God damn you, shoot me.’” De Choiseul drew his pistol and shot him point blank in the face. “He turned as I fired & [I] hit him in the cheek, knocking out one upper jaw tooth & two lower ones on the other side & cutting his tongue.” The others quickly retreated and, according to de Choiseul, “that quelled the riot.”
After de Choiseul demonstrated his willingness to shoot a disobedient man, the Tigers quickly accepted him as their commander. De Choiseul later recalled that after Wheat recovered and he returned to his own regiment, he met a Tiger on the road who cried and kissed his hand goodbye (the colonel admitted that the man was drunk at the time).

De Choiseul had proven his meddle to the notorious Tiger Battalion, but a few months later he was mortally wounded at the Battle of Port Republic, Va. Major Wheat was killed while leading his battalion at Gaines’ Mill in June 1862. But tales of the Tigers continued. Gen. John Bankhead Magruder once wrote his wife that during the 12 hours that the 10th Louisiana was camped on Jamestown Island, its members “eat up every living thing on the Island but two horses and their own species.”

Library of CongressSome of the 126 Tigers killed at the Battle of Antietam
Later, when the army captured a large quantity of whiskey, the officers dumped it in the ditch to keep it away from the men. One soldier reported the Louisiana Tigers got down on their hands and knees 100 yards down the road and lapped the whiskey up like dogs as it ran by. So terrible was the Tigers’ reputation that one poor Pennsylvania woman fainted from fright when the Rebel who was politely asking her for something to eat made the mistake of telling her he was from Louisiana.

On the other hand, the 12,000 Louisiana Tigers would prove to be among the best fighters in the Army of Northern Virginia. When their ammunition expired at the Second Battle of Bull Run, they refused to retreat and began throwing rocks at the Yankees. They were the only Confederates to break the Union line at Gettysburg, and they quite possibly saved Robert E. Lee’s army from destruction at Spotsylvania by holding their position after the enemy overran other Confederate units at the Bloody Angle. The Louisianians fought in every major battle in the Virginia theater and they suffered appalling casualties. When Lee surrendered at Appomattox after four years of war, only 373 Tigers remained on duty.

The Tigers’ name lives on today. Contrary to popular belief, the Louisiana State University Tigers are not named for a ferocious feline but for Louisiana’s most famous Civil War soldiers. In the early 1900s, Dr. Charles E. Coates of Louisiana State University was trying to decide on a name for the football team. When he was told that the Louisiana Tigers were the toughest set of men who ever lived, he chose them as his mascot.

Sources: Terry L. Jones, “Lee’s Tigers: The Louisiana Infantry in the Army of Northern Virginia”; Charles L. Dufour, “Gentle Tiger: The Gallant Life of Roberdeau Wheat”; John D. Winters, “The Civil War in Louisiana.”

Dr. Jones is a member of the Sons of Confederate Veterans


Confederate Flying Machine

Plans for Confederate flying machine are up for sale
One man's vision caught Jefferson Davis' attention, but never could get funded

The papers of R. Finley Hunt, a dentist with a passion for flight, describe scenarios where flying machines bombed Federal troops across Civil War battlefields.By Jeremy Hsu

While Rebel and Union soldiers still fought it out with bayonets and cannons, a Confederate designer had the foresight to imagine flying machines attacking Northern armies. He couldn't implement his vision during the war, and the plans disappeared into history, until resurfacing at a rare book dealer's shop 150 years later.

Now those rediscovered designs have found their way to the auction block, providing a glimpse at how Victorian-era technology could have beaten the Wright Brothers to the punch.

The papers of R. Finley Hunt, a dentist with a passion for flight, describe scenarios where flying machines bombed Federal troops across Civil War battlefields. Hunt's papers are set to go up for sale at the Space and Aviation Artifacts auction during the week of Sept. 15-22, giving one lucky collector a chance to own a piece of an alternate technological history that never came to pass.

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"It's incredible for someone who loves early aviation, because it poses the great question of 'What if?'" said Bobby Livingston, vice president of sales and marketing with RR Auction. "What if planes had appeared above the wilderness when (Union Gen. Ulysses S.) Grant began his campaign in the Shenandoah Valley?"

The hardback collection includes pencil drawings of wings, propellers and a multicylinder steam engine. Hunt's designs drew inspiration from his love of studying any and all flying methods found in nature, despite his own lack of professional expertise.

But Hunt found it difficult to find an engineer willing to build the device, despite getting the help of Confederate President Jefferson Davis to have the proposal considered. Letters between Hunt and a Confederate review board show that other engineers had strong doubts about the "steam flying machine."

First, the engineers said Hunt had dramatically overestimated the engine's power and ability to keep the machine flying. They also described another error in Hunt's reasoning as being "so obvious on reflection that no discussion is required."

"When they turned him down, it was over the science of it," Livingston told "But they considered it, and considered it a lot."

Hunt refused to take no for an answer. The papers include another letter to Davis, wherein Hunt tries to defend his flying theories and asks for assistance from a machinist. In the end, the Confederates decided against spending money to fund the project.

Still, the Confederates did deploy several other innovative war machines. Their ironclad steamship, the CSS Virginia, fought against the USS Monitor in the world's first duel between ironclads. A Confederate submarine called the H.L. Hunley also made its mark in history as the first submarine to successfully sink an enemy ship.

Both the Union and Confederate sides also flew manned balloons to scout different battlefields.

As for Hunt, he went to Washington, D.C., and got a U.S. patent on his device after the Civil War ended in 1865. He also built several working models and was still attempting to get financing in 1872. Yet he never saw his vision take flight.

"It looks to me like he's 40 years before the Wright brothers with a rotary engine driving propellers, but I don't know how close he was," Livingston said. "He never got the money to do it."


Tuesday, September 13, 2011

National Geographic Explores the Mystery of the Hunley

For more information contact:
Kellen Correia
843.743.4865, x.32
September 13th, 2011

National Geographic Channel Investigates the Disappearance of the Hunley

Submarine Secret Weapon of the Confederacy
Premieres Thursday, September 15, at 9PM ET/PT on the National Geographic Channel

Charleston, South Carolina – National Geographic Channel will debut a two-hour documentary about the Hunley, the world’s first successful combat submarine. Scheduled to premiere this Thursday, September 15th at 9 PM ET/PT on the National Geographic Channel, Secret Weapon of the Confederacy will delve into the possible theories to explain why the Hunley vanished after succeeding in her against-all-odds mission to sink the USS Housatonic. “The Hunley represents one of the world’s most intriguing maritime mysteries.

Using the latest discoveries emerging from the Project, we attempted to capture the fascination surrounding the submarine in a compelling documentary,” said Producer and Director Alan Martin. A popular – yet unproven – theory is that gunfire from the Housatonic crew damaged the Hunley’s conning tower, inflicting a deathly blow to the submarine. The documentary explores the plausibility of this scenario with a live action weapons test. A model of the Hunley, made with the same type iron as the actual 19th century submarine, is fired upon at different ranges with period weapons. The surprising results give new insights to archaeologists seeking to solve the mystery that led to the Hunley’s loss.

Beginning with the submarine’s conception and development in the dark days of the Civil War, Secret Weapon of the Confederacy will also cover the Hunley’s historical origins and the archaeological discovery process taking place today with the modern-day scientific methods being developed by the Project. The program also showcases state-of-the-art digital animation to recreate the legendary night bringing the viewer ever closer to unlocking the Hunley’s greatest secrets. “We will show how cutting-edge technology is being used to excavate history,” Martin said.For more information visit www.natgeotv.com.

On the evening of February 17, 1864, the H. L. Hunley became the world’s first successful combat submarine by sinking the USS Housatonic. After signaling to shore that the mission had been accomplished, the submarine and her crew of eight mysteriously vanished. Lost at sea for over a century, the Hunley was located in 1995by Clive Cussler’s National Underwater and Marine Agency (NUMA).

The innovative hand-cranked vessel was raised in 2000 and delivered to the Warren Lasch Conservation Center, where an international team of scientists are at work to conserve the submarine for future generations and piece together clues to solve the mystery of her disappearance. The Hunley Project is conducted through a partnership with the Clemson University Restoration Institute, South Carolina Hunley Commission, Naval Historical Center, and Friends of the Hunley.

Kellen Correia
Executive Director
Friends of the Hunley
1250 Supply St.Charleston, SC 29405
843-743-4865 ext.
32843-744-1480 - fax

Join us for the 7th Annual Friends of the Hunley Oyster Roast on Nov. 4th at the Visitor Center Bus Shed.

Leadership Workshop October 1

SCV National Leadership Workshop

As we approach the challenging years of the Sesquicentennial, leadership training has become even more important to the defense of our Southern heritage. In an effort to insure that our members better understand the challenges of leadership roles and to aid our leaders in acquiring the knowledge to better perform their duties, the SCV has scheduled a 2011 National Leadership Summit.

This year’s event will be held October 1, 2011 at the Terrace Restaurant on the campus of Twin Lakes Retirement Center, located at 100 Wade Coble Drive, Burlington, NC 27215. It will be hosted by the Col. Charles F. Fisher Camp #813. A tentative schedule for the day is posted below along with registration and lodging information.

Please note that this event will include relevant presentations and individual workshops for more specialized training for Commanders and Adjutants; however, ALL members are invited to attend!

8:00 – 8:15 Welcome & SCV Protocol Cmdr. Mitch Flinchum, Camp 813

8:15 – 8:30 Introductions & Overview Lt. CIC Charles Kelly Barrow

8:30 – 9:15 Commanders & Command CIC R. Michael Givens

9:15 – 9:30 BREAK

9:30 – 10:15 Adjutants & Administration NC Div. Adjutant Doug Nash

10:15 – 10:30 BREAK

10:30 – 11:15 Camp Programs & Projects ANV Councilman Gene Hogan

11:15 – 12:15 DINNER

12:15 – 1:00 Camp Operations & Success Past Ga.Div Cmdr Scott K. Gilbert, Jr

1:00 – 1:15 BREAK

1:15 – 2:00 Commander’s & Adjutant’s Workshops CIC, Lt. CIC & NC Div. Adj

2:15 – 2:30 BREAK

2:30 – 3:15 Recruiting & Retention Lt. CIC Charles Kelly Barrow

3:15 – Concluding Remarks & Discussion Lt. CIC Charles Kelly Barrow


Registration, which includes dinner, is only $12 each and will be handled through our General Headquarters at Elm Springs. After the 23rd, registration will be $6 with no meal. You may mail a reservation with a check or call 1 (800) 380-1896 ext 209 (Cindy) or email accounting@scv.org with credit card information (MC, VISA or AMEX)

Courtyard Mariott
3141 Wilson Drive
Burlington, NC 27215
(336) 585-1888

Corporate Suites
2912 Saconn Drive
Burlington, NC 27215
(336) 343-4000

Comfort Inn
2701 Kirkpatrick Road
Burlington NC
(336) 584-4447

Ramada Inn
2703 Ramada Road
Burlington NC 27215
(336) 227-5541

Registration Sheet



Email address_______________________________________

Camp number_________________ Check enclosed ( ) or

Credit Card (MC, VISA, or AMEX) Number __________________________ Expires _________

Sunday, September 11, 2011

Black Confederates Discussed at Harvard

John Stauffer to Discuss Blacks in Confederacy

The Root Recommends: Harvard professor John Stauffer's discussion about the history and myth of black Confederates during the Civil War.
By: Joshua R. Weaver | Posted: August 29, 2011

While claims that black Confederates existed during the Civil War era tend to evoke contentious debate, the writings of many African Americans may prove that blacks did, indeed, fight for the South.

This Wednesday, Aug. 30, from 12 to 1:30 p.m. at the Harvard Faculty Club Library (20 Quincy Street, Cambridge, Mass.), Harvard professor John Stauffer will discuss the phenomenon of black Confederates in the South, their impact during the Civil War and its aftermath, as well as the diverse ideas of freedom among blacks during the time period. Stauffer's "Black Confederates in History and Myth" is open to the public, and food and refreshments will be served.


Friday, September 2, 2011

Lexington, Virginia Turns PC

Virginia city limits Confederate flag-flying
Steve Szkotak, Associated Press / Sep 2, 2011

Officials in the rural Virginia city where Robert E. Lee and Thomas “Stonewall’’ Jackson are buried voted late Thursday to prohibit the flying of the Confederate flag on city-owned poles.

After a lively 2 ½-hour public hearing, the Lexington City Council voted 4-1 to allow only U.S., Virginia and city flags to be flown. Personal displays of the Confederate flag are not affected. The Sons of Confederate Veterans, whose members showed up in force after leading a rally that turned a downtown park into a sea of Confederate flags, vowed to challenge the ordinance in court.

Some speakers during the meeting said the ordinance was an affront to the men who fought in the Civil War in defense of the South. One speaker stayed silent during his allotted three minutes, in memory of the Civil War dead.

But many speakers complained that the flag was an offensive, divisive symbol of the South’s history of slavery and shouldn’t be endorsed by the city of 7,000 people.

“The Confederate flag is not something we want to see flying from our public property,’’ said city resident Marquita Dunn, who is black. “The flag is offensive to us.’’

Most residents who spoke, both blacks and whites, opposed the ordinance. But H.K. Edgerton, the former president of the NAACP chapter in Asheville, N.C., said he supported flying the Confederate flag because he wanted to honor black Confederate soldiers. Edgerton, who is black, wore a T-shirt emblazoned with images of those black soldiers.

“What you’re going to do in banning the Southern cross is wrong. May God bless Dixie,’’ he said, amid some gasps from the audience.

Before the rally, ordinance opponents rallied in the city park, then marched to the hearing under a parade of Confederate flags.


The Confederate of the Sierra Madre

The Confederate of the Sierra Madre

José Quintero’s reputation was soaring upon his return to Richmond in mid-August 1861. He had travelled the width of the Confederacy to deliver the rarest of gifts for the Southern capital: much better than a fine box of cigars, the Cuban-born Southern special agent brought good news from Mexico.

Despite a frenzy of activity, Confederate diplomacy was not bearing its anticipated fruits in the nation’s first summer. King Cotton had failed to induce recognition from Britain or France, and Richmond had heard nothing from Mexico City, where ambassador John Pickett’s boorish antics and intercepted dispatches, laden with contempt and condescension for his hosts, confirmed the Juarez government’s worst suspicions of the Southern cause — namely, that it had less interest in diplomacy, per se, than it did in southward expansion.

Yet 600 miles to the north of the Mexican capital, Quintero achieved one of the Confederacy’s most stunning diplomatic successes. In his negotiations with Santiago Vidaurri, governor of the Mexican border states of Nuevo Leon and Coahuila, the southern agent discovered a capable ally who offered more than his “great friendship”: Vidaurri promised border security, the supply of vital war material and an outlet for Southern cotton; most astonishingly, he proposed the outright annexation of his territories.

Adhering to the instructions from Richmond, Quintero had arrived in Vidaurri’s capital, Monterrey, with modest aims. He explained to Vidaurri during their meeting on June 23 that his chief concern was simply to establish cordial relations with Nuevo Leon and open discussions about security along the frontier.

José Quintero, ca. 1880 Vidaurri made it clear he did not have the authority to conduct foreign diplomacy — and then, in the same breath, offered to negotiate on behalf of his national government. Vidaurri stressed that border security was a high priority of his own, as he was actively in pursuit of Juan Cortina, the marauder who had sacked the border town of Brownsville, Tex., in 1859 and who was rumored to be gathering a force for additional raids across the Rio Grande. Furthermore, Vidaurri assured Quintero he would not allow Union troop movements through his territory and would do everything in his power to gather similar assurances from his fellow border-state governors.

The trading houses of Monterrey, Vidaurri told his guest, could provide the South with essential war supplies — not only lead, powder, saltpeter, copper and bronze, but also flour, cloth and shoes. Everything could be had in exchange for cash or cotton, and Vidaurri vowed to exercise his “moral influence” in Tamaulipas, the state bordering Texas and the Gulf of Mexico, to keep its port of Bagdad open to the Confederacy.

Vidaurri then divulged his greatest ambition to Quintero, something his enemies and allies alike had long suspected: that the governor was “anxious to establish the Republic of the Sierra Madre.” With the coming of the Civil War, Vidaurri suggested the time was ripe for his region to break with the central government in Mexico City and join the nascent Confederacy. Vidaurri stressed the similarities between his region and the Southern states: Mexico’s northern frontier was more geographically and commercially aligned with Texas than distant Mexico City, and annexation would further the process of Americanization that was already in progress.

Vidaurri’s states’ rights philosophy was well-suited for the Confederacy. The caudillo in Mexico City had ruled Nuevo Leon and Coahuila since 1855 under the Plan of Monterrey, a constitution that asserted state sovereignty and maintained a militia independent from federal control. Vidaurri exercised this autonomy, time and again putting his regional interests before the concerns of national politics; on several occasions he withdrew his troops from the liberal forces in the War of the Reform in order to consolidate his position in the north.

But there were also difficult incongruities between Vidaurri’s states and the Confederacy: Nuevo Leon’s constitution explicitly outlawed slavery, and the region had a proud history as a haven for runaway slaves, who with a year of gainful employment could even earn the right the vote. The backbone of his state revenues, moreover, depended on the customs receipts he would stand to lose once incorporated into the Confederate nation.

So why was Vidaurri so eager to align with the nascent Confederacy? Political survival. He had lost his best general and military strategist, Juan Zuazua, to assassination that winter. With the end of the Reform wars, President Benito Juarez was consolidating federal control and was sure to challenge Vidaurri’s virtual independence along the northern frontier. And if Juarez did not unseat the northern caudillo, a European power might — France and others were already making noise about invading Mexico over its debts.

Though highly impressed with Quintero’s mission, Jefferson Davis wisely refused Vidaurri’s offer of annexation. Southern Democrats, including Davis, had been advocates of expansion into Mexico throughout the 1850’s, but a primary motive for acquisition, maintaining the balance of power in Congress between slave states and free soil, no longer existed. Moreover, for an independent South, Manifest Destiny came with serious drawbacks. A formal union with Vidaurri’s realm would put northern Mexico’s ports within jurisdiction of the Union blockade, chocking a vital outlet for Southern exports. Additionally, annexation would draw the rest of Mexico into war against the South.

Potentially even more damaging, such a union would likely scuttle one of the Confederacy’s best hopes for European recognition. Davis believed Napoleon III’s anticipated intervention into Mexico would spark a war between the Union and France, opening the possibility of a Franco-Confederate alliance. Southern annexation might dampen this potential conflict, while surely antagonizing a potential ally.

Davis’s rejection of Vidaurri’s offer didn’t mean the end for Quintero, though. In reward for his efforts, he was assigned to a permanent post in Monterrey. But there his diplomatic reputation was immediately put to the test. On his way back to Nuevo Leon, he learned that Jose-Maria Carvajal, a Virginia-educated filibuster, was organizing a force outside Brownsville to invade northern Mexico. Quintero, worried about the implications for cross-border diplomatic relations, alerted the local commander, John Ford, and Texas Governor Francis Lubbock.

But to his dismay, neither acted; Ford was an old compatriot of Carvajal’s, while Lubbock had other concerns at hand. In March 1862 Carvajal attacked Matamoros, just across the border. Vidaurri was outraged, and told Quintero as much. Quintero immediately offered his resignation in a blistering report to Richmond:

The General Government of Mexico as you are well aware sympathizes with the Black Republicans. We have, however, succeeded in securing the friendship of the Governors of the frontier states and are now on the eve of incurring the their enmity, on account of the band of robbers who are permitted to abuse the Hospitality of Texas … I earnestly request the Department to appoint a person to succeed me who may have more influence … with the military at Brownsville.

In response to the raid, Vidaurri closed border and later added a 2 cent per pound levy on all cotton that crossed the Rio Grande. Quintero, who rescinded his resignation, soon managed to negotiate a reduction in the tariff, and his appeal to Richmond eventually led to Carvajal’s arrest. Tempers subsided; though similar border incursions would threaten commerce for the duration of the war, both sides had too much to gain for commerce not to continue.

Indeed, Quintero proved an integral tie between the two countries, and Vidaurri remained a staunch ally of the South. The governor refused a June 1862 request by the United States consul, C. B. H. Blood, for an official letter respecting Union commercial goods in his state. Later that same month, when President Juarez ordered the governor to “cease all intercourse with the Confederate States, under whatever circumstances,” Vidaurri refused, saying that he could not risk crippling the commerce in his region.

The alliance proved vital to the South: northern Mexico became a major outlet for its cotton, accounting for approximately 20 percent of wartime exports. Though the long wagon hauls through the rugged south Texas corridor ate up much of the value of the crop, the route proved competitive with the dangers of blockade running, as testified by the 125 ships at a time anchored off the coast near Matamoros.

But all good things come to an end. By 1864, the French invasion had pushed the Juarez government into northern Mexico, and Vidaurri was forced to choose between the central government and a foreign power. The master of self-preservation sought the winning side — and chose to back the French. When the French fell to Porfirio Díaz in 1867, he was arrested and executed.


Monument in North Carolina Under Attack

Students gathered Thursday to start a new discussion about the monument known as "Silent Sam."

The statue at UNC-Chapel Hill has been the subject of many debates in the nearly 100 years it has stood in the center of McCorkle Place.

For the passer-by or new student, the statue overlooking Franklin Street may appear to be of little significance, but some of those who know the statue's history say it is a misrepresentation of students and the community.

"For me personally, as a longtime resident of Chapel Hill and student of UNC, it's something that doesn't represent me, the town or the university," said Will McInerney, a senior and part of The Real Silent Sam movement.

The Real Silent Sam movement hopes to spark dialogue and provoke critical thought about the meanings behind the monuments and buildings of Chapel Hill. It hopes to provide the public with information that goes beyond standard narratives.

Silent Sam was erected in 1913 as a monument to the alumni and students who fought and died in the Confederate Army.